4TH of JULY — Independence Day

4th of July — Independence Day
By HistoryChannel.com
The Fourth of July — also known as Independence Day or July 4th — has
been a federal holiday in the United States since 1941, but the
tradition of Independence Day celebrations goes back to the 18th
century and the American Revolution. On July 2nd, 1776, the
Continental Congress voted in favor of independence, and two days
later delegates from the 13 colonies adopted the Declaration of
Independence, a historic document drafted by Thomas Jefferson. From
1776 to the present day, July 4th has been celebrated as the birth of
American independence, with festivities ranging from fireworks,
parades and concerts to more casual family gatherings and barbecues.
The Fourth of July 2022 is on Monday, July 4, 2022.
History of Independence Day
When the initial battles in the Revolutionary War broke out in April
1775, few colonists desired complete independence from Great Britain,
and those who did were considered radical.
By the middle of the following year, however, many more colonists had
come to favor independence, thanks to growing hostility against
Britain and the spread of revolutionary sentiments such as those
expressed in the bestselling pamphlet “Common Sense,” published by
Thomas Paine in early 1776.
On June 7, when the Continental Congress met at the Pennsylvania State
House (later Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, the Virginia delegate
Richard Henry Lee introduced a motion calling for the colonies’
independence.
Amid heated debate, Congress postponed the vote on Lee’s resolution,
but appointed a five-man committee — including Thomas Jefferson of
Virginia, John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut,
Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and Robert R. Livingston of New
York—to draft a formal statement justifying the break with Great
Britain.
Did you know John Adams believed that July 2nd was the correct date on
which to celebrate the birth of American independence, and would
reportedly turn down invitations to appear at July 4th events in
protest. Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826 — the
50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.
On July 2nd, the Continental Congress voted in favor of Lee’s
resolution for independence in a near-unanimous vote (the New York
delegation abstained, but later voted affirmatively). On that day,
John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail that July 2 “will be celebrated,
by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival” and that
the celebration should include “Pomp and Parade… Games, Sports, Guns,
Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to
the other.”
On July 4th, the Continental Congress formally adopted the Declaration
of Independence, which had been written largely by Jefferson. Though
the vote for actual independence took place on July 2nd, from then on
the 4th became the day that was celebrated as the birth of American
independence.
Early Fourth of July Celebrations and Traditions
In the pre-Revolutionary years, colonists had held annual celebrations
of the king’s birthday, which traditionally included the ringing of
bells, bonfires, processions and speechmaking. By contrast, during the
summer of 1776 some colonists celebrated the birth of independence by
holding mock funerals for King George III as a way of symbolizing the
end of the monarchy’s hold on America and the triumph of liberty.
Festivities including concerts, bonfires, parades and the firing of
cannons and muskets usually accompanied the first public readings of
the Declaration of Independence, beginning immediately after its
adoption. Philadelphia held the first annual commemoration of
independence on July 4, 1777, while Congress was still occupied with
the ongoing war.
George Washington issued double rations of rum to all his soldiers to
mark the anniversary of independence in 1778, and in 1781, several
months before the key American victory at the Battle of Yorktown,
Massachusetts became the first state to make July 4th an official
state holiday.
After the Revolutionary War, Americans continued to commemorate
Independence Day every year, in celebrations that allowed the new
nation’s emerging political leaders to address citizens and create a
feeling of unity. By the last decade of the 18th century, the two
major political parties — the Federalist Party and
Democratic-Republicans — that had arisen began holding separate Fourth
of July celebrations in many large cities.
Fourth of July Fireworks
The first fireworks were used as early as 200 BC. The tradition of
setting off fireworks on the Fourth of July began in Philadelphia on
July 4, 1777, during the first organized celebration of Independence
Day. Ship’s cannon fired a 13-gun salute in honor of the 13 colonies.
The Pennsylvania Evening Post reported: “at night there was a grand
exhibition of fireworks (which began and concluded with thirteen
rockets) on the Commons, and the city was beautifully illuminated.”
That same night, the Sons of Liberty set off fireworks over Boston
Common.
Fourth of July becomes a Federal Holiday
The tradition of patriotic celebration became even more widespread
after the War of 1812, in which the United States again faced Great
Britain. In 1870, the U.S. Congress made July 4th a federal holiday;
in 1941, the provision was expanded to grant a paid holiday to all
federal employees.
Over the years, the political importance of the holiday would decline,
but Independence Day remained an important national holiday and a
symbol of patriotism.
Falling in mid-summer, the Fourth of July has since the late 19th
century become a major focus of leisure activities and a common
occasion for family get-togethers, often involving fireworks and
outdoor barbecues. The most common symbol of the holiday is the
American flag, and a common musical accompaniment is “The
Star-Spangled Banner,” the national anthem of the United States.

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